The main motion of the lathe is the rotation motion of the spindle, and the feed motion is the linear movement of the tool. Feed is usually expressed by the movement of the tool per spindle, in M / R. When turning threads, there is only one compound main motion, namely screw motion, which can be decomposed into spindle rotation motion and tool movement. In addition, there are some necessary auxiliary movements on the lathe. For example, in order to process the wool to the required size, the lathe should also have the cutting motion (the cutting motion is usually perpendicular to the direction of feed motion, and the worker moves the tool holder by hand on the horizontal lathe). Some lathes also have the rapid longitudinal and lateral movement of the tool holder.
The main parameter of the horizontal lathe is the maximum rotary diameter of the workpiece on the bed, and the second is the maximum length of the workpiece. These two parameters indicate the maximum limit size of the workpiece machined by the lathe, and also reflect the size of the machine tool, because the main parameters determine the height of the axis of the spindle from the guide rail of the lathe body, and the second main parameters determine the length of the lathe bed.
Composition of lathes
Horizontal lathe mainly processes various kinds of axle, sleeve and disk parts. Its shape is shown in the figure, and its main group is composed of three parts.
Components include spindle box, tool holder, tailstock, feed box, slide box and bed, etc.
I. Spindle box
The headstock is fixed to the left end of the bed, and the main shaft and the variable speed transmission mechanism are installed inside, and the workpiece is clamped to the front end of the spindle through the chuck. The function of the headstock is to support the main shaft and transmit the power to the main shaft via the variable speed transmission mechanism, so that the main shaft drives the workpiece to rotate at a prescribed speed to realize the main motion.
2. Tool holder
The tool holder is mounted on the tool holder rail of the bed and can be moved longitudinally along the guide rail. The tool holder component consists of several layers of tool holders. Its function is to clamp the turning tool for longitudinal, lateral or oblique feed motion.
The tailstock is mounted on the tool holder rail of the bed and can be adjusted longitudinally along the rail. Its function is to support the long workpiece with the top tip, or to install a hole machining tool such as a drill bit or a dumpling knife for hole machining.
The bed is mounted on the left and right leg legs and functions to support the main components and maintain an accurate relative position or trajectory during operation.
5. Slide box
The slide box is fixed at the bottom of the tool holder to move the tool holder together in the longitudinal direction. Its role is to pass the feed box through the light bar.
The motion from (or the lead screw) is transmitted to the tool holder, allowing the tool holder to achieve longitudinal feed, lateral feed, rapid movement or threading. The joystick is equipped with various joysticks or buttons.
6. Feed box
The feed box is fixed to the left front side of the bed, and has a feed mechanism changing mechanism for changing the feed of the motor feed or the lead of the machined thread.
Lathe operation steps
1. Inspection before driving
1.1 Fill the machine grease diagram with the appropriate grease.
1.2 Check the electrical facilities of each department, the handle, transmission parts, protection and limit devices are complete and reliable.
1.3 Each gear should be at zero position, and the belt should be tight.
1.4 The bed surface is not allowed to directly store metal objects to avoid damage to the bed surface.
1.5 The workpiece to be processed, no muddy sand, prevent mud sand from falling into the carriage, and grinding the guide rail.
1.6 Before the workpiece is clamped, the empty lathe test run must be carried out to confirm that everything is normal before the workpiece can be loaded.
2. Operating procedures