lathe machine

Gabatar da Injin Lathe: Nau'ikan 16 Na'urar Lathe

Lathe ɗayan kayan aikin inji ne wanda akafi amfani dashi a fannin sarrafa karafa. Akwai nau'ikan kayan aikin inji. Yana da wahala mutanen da basu san wannan masana'antar ba su iya bayyana banbanci tsakanin nau'ikan kayan aikin inji. A cikin wannan takarda, mun rarraba daga ƙananan tsarin 6: yanayin sarrafawa, tsarin inji, amfani, kayan sarrafawa, adadin masu riƙe kayan aiki, nau'in kayan inji. Kodayake sunaye daban-daban na lathe, akwai wasu maganganu na gicciye, kamar su mashin mai gado mai gado kuma yana da lathe a kwance, bututun zaren lathe shima yana daCNC lathe inji, amma hakan bai shafi fahimtarmu game da lathe ba.

Nau'in gabatarwar injin lathe:
Dangane da hanyar sarrafawa

  • Lathe na al'ada
  • CNC lathe

Dangane da tsarin inji

  • Takamaiman lathe
  • Lathe tsaye
  • Slant gado lathe

Dangane da manufar inji

  • Rankarafan ƙwanƙwasa, ƙwanƙwasa lathe, lathe ƙafafu, ƙwanƙwasa lathe, axhe lathe, mirgine lathe da ingot lathe, juyawa da kayan aikin injin inji, wheelet lathe, bututu thread lathe

Dangane da kayan da aka sarrafa

  • Katako mai lathe
  • Karfe yankan lathe

Ididdiga ta yawan masu riƙe da kayan aiki

  • Mai ɗaukar kayan aiki guda ɗaya CNC lathe, mai riƙe kayan aikin CNC lathe sau biyu

Ididdiga ta nau'ikan sassan kayan aiki

  • Chuck irin CNC lathe, saman lathe CNC

Dangane da hanyar sarrafawa

A halin yanzu, akwai hanyoyi biyu na sarrafawa don lathe, ɗayan shi ne kulawar hannu, ɗayan kuma shine sarrafa shirye-shiryen CNC. Dangane da hanyoyin sarrafawa daban-daban, an raba lathe zuwa lathe na al'ada da lathe na CNC.

Lathe na al'ada

engine lathe

Babban lathe yana da kayan aiki mai faɗi, kewayon daidaitawar juyawar juyawa kuma adadin abincin yana da yawa. Za'a iya sarrafa fuskokin ciki da na waje, fuskokin ƙarshen, da zaren ciki da na waje na kayan aikin. Wannan nau'in lathe galibi ma'aikaci ne ke sarrafa shi da hannu. Yana da sauƙin aiki. A farkon matakin, an daidaita saurin, an motsa gear, an ɗaga maɓallin farawa, sannan kuma an tura farin ciki gaba. Kayan aikin juyawa yana gaba, na baya yana jan baya, kayan aikin juyawa suna komawa zuwa hagu, kuma kayan aikin juya zuwa hagu. Hagu da dama duk iri daya ne. Kodayake aikin babban abin hawa yana da sauƙi, sarrafa sassan ɓangaren aiki ne na fasaha, kuma ma'aikata za su kalli kayan awo da zane don aiki. Lokacin sarrafa ƙananan ƙungiyoyi na sassan, lathes na al'ada suna da fa'ida mafi inganci fiye da CNClathe inji. Sau da yawa sau da yawa ana aiki da lathes na gaba ɗaya, kuma CNC lathes suna nan cikin matakin shirye-shirye. Saboda wannan fasalin, lathe na yau yana da kasuwa, wanda ya dace da yanki ɗaya, ƙaramin tsari da kuma bitocin kulawa.

Wadannan lathes za a iya raba su zuwa nau'ikan lathes na al'ada daban-daban na bayanai, kamar LT6232 da LT6250, ya danganta da tsayin tsakiya da tazarar tsakiya. Baya ga jujjuya dukkan nau'ikan kayan aikin juyawa, za su iya juya zaren daban-daban, kamar zaren metric, zaren inci, zaren modulus, zaren diametric da zaren karshen.

Don inganta diamita na aiki na lathe na al'ada, an sami lathe gado mai rata (wanda ake kira lathe sirdi).

Arshen hagu na gadon gado mai laushi a gaban akwatin saitin kai yana ɗauke kuma yana iya ɗaukar manyan sassan diamita. Siffar lathe ta kai kai biyu, ƙasa a tsakiya, kuma ta yi kama da abin hawa, don haka ake kiranta sirdin lathe. Latse siririn ya dace da sassan kayan aiki tare da manyan ƙyallen radial da ƙananan matakan axial. Ya dace da juya da'irar waje, ramin ciki, ƙarshen fuska, juzu'i da ma'auni, inci, modulus, zaren zare, da hakowa da gundura. , reaming da sauran matakai, musamman dacewa da yanki guda, masana'antun samar da tsari. Latse siririn zai iya aiwatar da manyan kayan aiki na diamita a cikin tsakar sirdi. Jagoran kayan aikin inji suna da taurin zuciya kuma an yanke su da ƙasa don aiki mai sauƙi da aminci. Lathe yana da halaye na babban ƙarfi, babban gudu, ƙarfi mai kauri, daidaici mai tsayi da ƙananan amo.

lathe machine

CNC lathe

CNC lathe an haɓaka daga lathe, kuma an ƙara tsarin sarrafa shirye-shirye zuwa babban inji. Shirin yana sarrafawa ta shirin don sarrafa inji don aiwatar da aiki bisa ga ƙayyadaddun tsarin, kammala sake zagayowar dukkan aikin sarrafawar.

Kamar lathes na yau da kullun, ana amfani da lathes na CNC don yin injin ɗin juzu'in sassan. Gabaɗaya, yana iya kammala aikin atomatik na farfajiyar farfajiyar waje, dutsen mai juyawa, farfajiyar mai faɗi da zaren, kuma yana iya aiwatar da wasu ɗakunan juyawa masu rikitarwa, kamar su hyperboloids. Ana shigar da kayan aikin lathe da na lathe na al'ada iri ɗaya. Domin inganta ingancin sarrafawa, lathes na lantarki sune galibin kayan aiki na hydraulic, pneumatic da lantarki.

Suran CNC lathe yayi kama da na lathe na al'ada, ma'ana, ya kunshi gado, kayan kwalliya, mai riƙe kayan aiki, tsarin matsi na abinci, tsarin sanyaya da shafa mai. Tsarin ciyarwar na lathe na CNC ya bambanta da lathe na al'ada. Lathe na al'ada yana da akwatin abinci da jigilar jigilar kayayyaki. CNC lathe kai tsaye yana amfani da motar servo don fitar da silaid da mariƙin kayan aiki ta cikin dunƙulewar ball don fahimtar motsi abincin. Tsarin tsarin ciyarwar yana sauƙaƙa ƙwarai.
Masana'antar CNC ta yau an riga an riga an yadu don sarrafa microcomputer. A halin yanzu akwai nau'ikan lathes na CNC guda biyu, ɗayan ɗayan kayan aikin inji mai sarrafa microcomputer mai sauƙi, ɗayan kuma kayan aikin inji ne mai sarrafa kwamfuta. Yayin aiki, CNC lathe yana yin lissafi bisa ga umarnin shirin shigarwa kuma yana shigar da sakamakon lissafi zuwa naúrar motar. Na'urar tuka motar sarrafawa tana yin lissafi gwargwadon umarnin, tana shigar da sakamakon lissafi zuwa ga na'urar tuki, tana sarrafa na'urar tuki (stepper motor) a tsakiyar mashin din don tuka masarrafan inji, kuma yana aiki da matakin aikin inji. kayan aiki (hawa mai tsawo da kwance) don fahimtar motsi.

Dangane da tsarin inji

Takamaiman lathe

Babban fasalin lathe na kwance shine cewa babban axis yayi daidai da sandar aiki kuma yayi kama da yana kwance a ƙasa. Keɓaɓɓen lathes sun dace da sarrafa kayan wuta waɗanda ba su da girman diamita amma dogaye. Wannan shi ne saboda ƙararrawar kwance da sarrafawa ta saman abin da aka kunna. Wannan tsarin yana tabbatar da cewa nauyin abin aiki ba zai iya zama babba ba. Matsakaicin matsakaicin nauyi shine kilogiram 300, kuma lathe mai ɗauke da nauyi na iya ɗaukar tan 1. Tsawon aiki shine babban fa'idar lathe na kwance dangane da lathe na tsaye.

Tsawon aikin shine 750mm, 1000mm, 2000mm, 3000mm, 4000mm ko ma 8000mm, da dai sauransu.

Lathe tsaye

vertical lathe tsinfa

Babban fasalin lathe na tsaye shine cewa spindle ɗin yana tsaye da teburin kuma an ɗora abin ɗora hannu akan teburin. Lathe a tsaye ya dace don sarrafa kayan aiki masu nauyi tare da babban diamita da gajere. Wannan saboda a lathe na tsaye, matsewa da daidaita sassan ya dace, kuma jagorar juyawa tsakanin aiki mai aiki da tushe yana da ƙarfin ɗaukar hoto. Saurin motsi yayin aiki yayi yawa, saboda haka ingancin aiki na sassan yayi yawa, amma ingancin waɗannan sassan yana da wahalar tabbatarwa lokacin da aka sanya su akan lathes na al'ada da ƙarshen lathes.

Za'a iya raba lathes na tsaye zuwa sanduna masu tsaye a tsaye da kuma na lathes na biyu a tsaye. Latungiyoyi masu tsaye a gaba ɗaya gaba ɗaya suna da maƙallin kayan aiki na tsaye da mai riƙe kayan aikin gefe. Duk masu riƙewar suna da akwatunan abinci daban waɗanda za a iya sarrafa ɗayansu ko kuma lokaci guda don wucewa ta tsaye da ta kwance. Manyan lathes na tsaye gabaɗaya suna da tsayayyu biyu. Don saukin sarrafawa, lathe na tsaye a tsaye yana da maɓallin kayan aiki guda biyu a tsaye da mai riƙe kayan aikin gefe ɗaya. Faifan da suka fi girma suna da mai riƙe da wuka a gefen kowane ginshiƙan.

Slant gado lathe

slant bed lathe tsinfa

Tsarin layin dogo yana ba da damar lathe ya zama mai tsaurin kai da sauƙin cire kwakwalwan kwamfuta.

Dangane da manufar inji

Rankanƙwasa ƙwanƙwasa, ƙwanƙun ƙwanƙwasa, ƙwanƙolin lathes da ingot lathes, juyawa da kayan aikin inji, bututun zaren lathe.

A Crankshaft lathe

Latsaron Crankshaft wani nau'in lathe ne na musamman da ake amfani da shi wajen hada wuyan sanda mai hade da bangaren hannu na bangaren konewa na ciki da kuma matattarar iska.

A CNC dabaran lathe

CNC ƙafafun lathe kayan aiki ne na musamman don sarrafawa da kuma gyara ƙafafun ƙafafun injunan jirgin ƙasa. Don inganta haɓaka aiki da ƙimar farashin kayan aikin inji, an ƙaddamar da tsarin CNC don mai riƙe kayan aiki biyu na layin dabaran, kuma an tattauna ma'aunin atomatik, saitin kayan aiki da ayyukan yankan tattalin arziki na tsarin CNC. Yanayin aiki ne na inji mai sarrafa kansa kai tsaye, kuma an sanye shi da tsarin auna atomatik, wanda ke atomatik yana ƙididdige sigogin yankan mafi kyau bayan auna ƙafafun ƙafafun motar da za'a gyara.

Yi lathes

Rolls lathes su ne lathes da aka tsara don sarrafa jujjuya. Rolls ɗin gabaɗaya Rolls ne da ake amfani dasu akan injin mirgina. Babban fasali ne, mai nauyi da nauyi wanda yake da kwalliya akan sa.

Injin inji da nika

Juyawa dainjin nika na duniyaKayan aiki mai haɗin keɓaɓɓen kayan aiki shine ɗayan shahararrun ayyukan sarrafa kayan masarufi a cikin duniyar sarrafa kayan aiki. Fasaha ce ta ci gaba. Hada kayan aiki shine aiwatar da matakai daban-daban na kayan masarufi akan mashina daya. MillingHakowa, na'ura mai juyawa. Haɗin sarrafawa shine mafi yadu amfani kuma mafi wuya shine haɗuwa da juyawa da niƙa. Gidan juyawa da nika cibiyar hada mashin yayi daidai da hadewar sinadarin CNC lathe da cibiyar mashin din.

pipe lathe tsinfa

Bututu zaren lathe

Lathe zaren lathe, wanda aka fi sani da lakabin zaren zaren lathe, lathe ne a kwance wanda aka tsara don juya kayan aikin bututu mai girman-diamita. Yana fasalta babban ramin diamita na babban shaft (gabaɗaya 135mm ko fiye) da ƙuƙwalwa a gaba da bayan akwatin sandar. Domin sauƙaƙe matattara da sarrafa manyan bututu da sanduna, ana amfani da samfurin sosai wajen sarrafa inji, da mai, da sinadarai, da kwal, da binciken ƙasa, da samar da ruwan sha na birni da masana'antar magudanan ruwa.

lathe machine

Dangane da kayan da aka sarrafa

Katako mai lathe

Karfe yankan lathe

Motar yankan karfe tana kama da motar katako ta yadda ake amfani da ita don yanke abun aiki ta hanyar juya abin aiki a cikin kayan aiki.

Koyaya, bambanci tsakanin su ma babban:

  1. Tsarin mai riƙe da wuka ya bambanta. Motocin katako sun fi sassauƙa. Misali, amfani da lathe yankan ƙarfe don tuka gilashin gilashi, matsar da kayan aikin don tsara shi na iya zama da wahala.
  2. Yanayin abin aiki daban. Kayan aikin abin hawa na ƙarfe gabaɗaya yana kama, kuma ƙimar da taurin suna kasancewa iri ɗaya, saboda haka ana iya yanke shi 3mm a lokaci ɗaya, kuma ana iya motsa kayan aikin ta atomatik. Idan ana amfani da katako ta wannan hanyar, za a tsokanar da itacen har ma da itacen za a tsage. Motar katakon katako na katako ya fi kyau.
  3. Kayan juyawa sun banbanta. Yankan gefen kayan aikin juyawa ba daidai yake da kusurwa ba.

Ididdiga ta nau'ikan sassan kayan aiki

Chuck irin CNC lathes

Wadannan lathes din basu da wutsiya kuma sun dace da juya fayafai (gami da gajerun igiyoyi). Mafi yawa daga cikin hanyoyin matsewa sune na lantarki ko na lantarki, kuma tsarin chuck yana da daidaitattun maƙogwaro ko muƙamuƙai marasa ƙarfi (watau laushi mai laushi).

CNCananan Lathes na CNC

Wadannan lathes suna sanye take da kayan wutsiya na yau da kullun ko ƙwarin CNC. Sun dace da juya sassa masu tsayi da sassan diski tare da ƙaramin diamita.

Bugu da kari, yana iya zama daban-daban gwargwadon yadda yake aiki daidai

An raba lathe zuwa lathe na gama gari, madaidaicin lathe da madaidaicin lathe. Daidaici da madaidaitan lathes galibi ana yin su ne akan lathes na yau da kullun. Ta hanyar inganta daidaiton yanayin injina na inji, rage tasirin tashin hankali da tushen zafi, da kuma amfani da bugun gaba mai inganci, inji yana da daidaiton aikin inji.

Duk wasu tambayoyi da fatan za a iya jin daɗin tuntuɓar mu.